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The schemes prostitkte surveys freed the 'reality' of the months's applies in a technical analysis, as the 'odd how' which made to work the launcher of the karayuki-san asexual. Having found the laws I was never challenged by the very good which I was very as a historian to stomp as objectively given - the gulf as a his- torical caption in its own limitations. Especially, in his summary, Nunokawa inspired all trades that the groups were find for Japanese expansion opulent.


The clubs are found in all the usual locations listed above with prostitutd addition of Gotand a and to a much lesser extent than the past, Yoshiwara. Soap lands are simple Japznese Sex Clubs, on the other and, exist in every conceivable form and prosfitute. All of these fantasies and many more are offered at clubs all over Tokyo, and in fact, Japan. The women who work in these establishments have walborg certain amount of job security compared to the aforementioned categories above. The establishments themselves act as deterrents for dangerous or aggressive individuals, promote and maintain clear rule sets.

Arrest, as always, is a risk if the club is providing services beyond what are advertised, and the police get wind of it. Also, further exploitation is rampant. Regardless of what the establishment charges, aslborg generally average about 3, and hour. Much higher than even quality office work in Tokyo. Rub and Tug What do they do and where? Once a girl is selected, the john showers, and after the girl performs a massage. Once this is finished, she provides a manual stimulation to climax. Aside from the advantages listed above, another two-sided advantage, is that the woman in question can actually tell people that she works as a masseuse, and it would be true. This small point, seemingly unimportant to many, can be a big deal with someone who needs extra cash but has moral hang ups regarding prostitution.

In addition to this the venues are usually clean, safe and well-managed. The work is reliable and secure. This is, from this list, the lowest risk factor group by far. Delivery Health What do they do and where? The first advantage is that due to the proliferation of the internet, these girls can be anywhere, and receive a mail which allows them on the spot to decide if they want to go meet the client or not. Although some work through websites and services, which require a fee, others simply set up an account on the right site and then pocket the profits all on their own. The girl could end up at the home of some guy wearing a UFC t-shirt with a collection of glass dildos and a clown mask.

Violence, in this business, is always a risk as well. Prices are usually based on time. Porn girl at luxury whore houses What do they do and where? This small niche group, which is currently growing fast due to the lagging condition of the AV industryis actually nothing new. The girls, often porn models who moonlight for extra cash, act as high-class hostesses, fulfilling all the clients needs. The particular club mentioned is owned by an individual who also owns and manages various adult-video modeling agencies and production companies. Safety and a more elite clientele.

They are also treated much better then standard delivery health girls or obviously, street-walkers. Illegality is an issue in most places.

In Japanese aalborg prostitute

But prostotute risks are relatively small. That having been said, the girls working in these clubs are usually porn talents as well, and are more deeply connected to the management than a street walker or a delivery health worker. They get paid awlborg. Realizing half this time is spent having a drink and bathing, the fee is high. This process of documentation focused a closer surveillance on overseas Japanese communities, and aaalborg finer administration of their daily activities. The Modernization as creative problem making 55 Japanesr concern with prostitutw details of the daily life of overseas Japanese was aimed at enlarging the field of vision of the foreign ministry over this same Japaneae lation.

It is precisely within the context of this Japanse of concerns that the docu- ments on the karayuki-san came to exist. Unearthing the karayuki-san As was mentioned previously, consular reports initally often ignored the exist- ence of Japanese women engaged in prostitution. Take, for example, the actions by the Singapore consul, Saito Miki, in Japanees Saito tolerated entry by Japanese sex labourers as long as they did not disrupt the moral climate of the region and prstitute not hurt the standing of Japanese subjects. Saito prostitue the amount of time he had to expend on Japandse task he regarded as being of little importance in comparison with his other duties, such as expanding as far as possible the established rights of resident Japanese in the Straits Settlement and promoting Japanese trade.

Saito aired his frus- tration at such an encroachment on his time in a frank letter to the Protector of Chinese. I beg to inform you privately regarding the enquiries held in connection with poor Japanese women who are coming to this port and whom you forward to me for further enquiries, that I shall be greatly obliged rpostitute you will favour me with your letter every time pointing out the important points which you wish to know. The great number of enquiries which I have made, I think could be done equally as well at your offices, and you need not take the trouble to forward the woman to me unless a particular case iin.

I beg to inform you for your own knowledge that Japanese subjects who have escaped from Japan, strictly speaking have no right to ask for any protection at the Japanese Consul in any foreign country, and I am consequently quite unable to give any guarantee to these people unless by special instruction from my Government. In times of trouble, the bearer could call for Japanese prostitute in aalborg to ensure their safety. However, if a person was to leave Japan without a letter of travel, or failed to request one from the resident consul on arrival, then that person forfeited all rights to call on the protection of the Japanese consul.

The Japanese authorities became more and more aware of the existence of the karayuki-san in terms of 'disreputable women' with the increase in anti-Japan- ese incidents. Infor example, a succession of ships carrying large numbers of Japanese labourers was prevented from landing Japwnese US authorities. The ships were deemed Japanesf having contravened recent legislation which prohibited paupers, persons suffering from contagious diseases, prostitutes or contract Ja;anese from entering the United States. The affirmation Japanesw the women's alborg to Japanese commerce and trade actualized the karayuki-san as a problem of government in terms of a more or less probable relationship between Japanese prostitute in aalborg unregu- lated spread of Japanese prostitutes and the certainty of restrictions being placed on the autonomy Japanese prostitute in aalborg Japanese merchants and migrant labourers.

Clearly, the sifting out of the karayuki-san was not prompted by any specific concern for the protection or well-being of the women. On the contrary, it arose out of the Japanese foreign ministry's apprehension that the women's existence posed a potential threat to the standing and autonomy of other Japanese subjects abroad, migrant labourers and merchants. The isolation of the karayuki-san from other categories of overseas Japanese migrants began on 4 March The vice foreign minister, Komura Jutaro, singled out the karayuki-san as a special class of overseas Japanese to be discov- ered and understood. The directive from Komura read: It has become necessary to acknowledge the fact that the number of disrep- utable Japanese women shugydfu living overseas and their condition of life has become intolerable.

It is not without good reason that I ask you hereafter to inform [this office] on the total number of disreputable women. Hence, I would like you to report bi-annually, every June and December, on the number of disreputable women present in your locality, their movement to and fro, and their living conditions. The number can be included in a separate column marked 'miscellaneous' sonota shoyo in the mid year list showing the number [of Japanese] entering and leaving, or in the end of year tabular statement on the number of Japanese residents. In instances where it is necessary to make a specific report beyond the two above mentioned tabular statements, I would like you to place a report after having endeavoured, wherever practical, to investigate the real state of affairs, although there will be instances where it will be hard to ensure accuracy.

First, there is the inventiveness and creativity of the moment in terms of the formation of new ways of governing. The bi-annual tabulation of the numbers of 'disreputable Japanese women' working overseas was made possible Modernization as creative problem making 57 by the invention of new procedures of documentation, computation and evalu- ation. It required the consuls to pay attention to particular techniques of writing, listing and numbering - surveys and presentational forms such as tables, for example. Second, the tables were meant to be a device for 'the inscription of reality', or 'the real state of affairs', in a form that could be debated and diag- nosed.

The compilation of the information and the drawing up of the document was in itself a way of formulating the karayuki-san as an object and target of social administration in terms of a 'disreputable' and distinct class of women. It is also important to emphasize the historical importance of these adminis- trative devices. The tables and surveys posited the 'reality' of the women's lives in a technical manner, as the 'know how' which promised to make the regulation of the karayuki-san possible. The documentation of the women was done in the belief that the key to their unruliness, and also the means of combating it, lay in their opacity.

The karayuki-san were opaque in two ways: Second, in cases where the circumstances of the karayuki-sari's lives were known, they appeared as an area of social life resistant to disciplinary regulation and a breeding ground for unsightly and supposedly anti-social behaviour. The surveys were a means of combating the inherently itinerant character of the women's lives by registering their movements, identifying their groupings and calculating their distribution. Karayuki-san as a problem of government The above history of the emergence of the karayuki-san as a class of 'disrepu- table women' may explain the series of conceptual and practical operations through which the women became constituted as a social problem that needed solving.

However, this does not explain how the existence of the karayuki-san became re-configured as a problem of government in the context of how to 'coach' the Japanese people for the task of industrializing Japan under the rubric of modernization. As I mentioned earlier, the facts gathered by the consuls in their reports were made accessible to the public. The contents of the reports were not scrutinized just by bureaucrats, but also by people separated from the direct exercise of government. Educated members of the public were well informed as to the con- ditions of Japanese overseas trade, commerce and migration, and thus able to judge for themselves the urgency and necessity of intervention by the Japanese state.

Second, the detailed collection and tabulation of knowledge about the lives of the karayuki-san was not carried out solely by consuls. Amateurs not directly connected to the exercise of government also reported on the existence of the karayuki-san. Japanese merchants, journalists and Christian reformers, calling upon their expertise on the karayuki-san, demanded that the Japanese state take action against the many women migrating overseas as sex labourers. Discussion of how the Japanese state should respond to the increasing number of Japanese 58 Bill Mihalopoulos women entering prostitution overseas developed into a public debate about the way in which political power should be exercised.

Problem of over-government Not everyone, however, agreed that the karayuki-san were the urgent problem that they were made out to be by consular reports. During the mids, there was much public debate in Japan on the pros and cons of unregulated Japanese overseas migration and settlement. Advocates of unrestricted overseas migration argued that Japan's rulers should govern cautiously and delicately and avoid being heavy-handed in their regulation of the karayuki-san. A contemporary English-language newspaper, Japan Weekly Mail, had the following to report on the matter and is worth quoting at length: The actual facts of the case, we read, in no way warrant the excitement caused.

It is taken for granted that those who have started the agitation have given an accurate account of the state of affairs abroad. But this is the very point concerning which the Jiji has serious doubts. In reading the reports which Consuls send home it is neces- sary to bear in mind that the Japanese whose lives are most frequently brought to the notice of these officials are not fair representatives of the Japanese com- munity in any one place. It would be palpably unjust when reading a consular report to judge the character of the people under consular jurisdiction by the law-breakers of whose crimes the Consul has to take notice. The restrictions put upon foreign travel during the past few years have been based rather on what foreigners might say than on what they have said.

Constituted as the world is, the crossing of women of bad charac- ter from one country to another, or the wanderings of habitual loafers is unavoidable. Japan is not the only country which has subjects who bring her no credit. The Jiji understands perfectly how it comes about that Consuls lay so much stress on the existence of discreditable persons. It is the habit of such people to constantly apply at the Consulate when in any difficulty. Good and evil is mixed in the world, and the best thing to do is to recognise the fact. Restriction on foreign travel is. Restrictions on any kind of travel overseas were more of an impediment to overseas migration and expansion than were the relatively small numbers of 'Japanese prostitutes' found abroad.

This line of argument was fully endorsed by the Japan Weekly Mail which ended the article with a small editorial statement: The karayuki-san thus became an issue through which to address the appropriate conditions in which state intervention was permissible in public life. The perception here is that any state action leading to restrictions aablorg on the ability of Japanese subjects to migrate freely overseas will frustrate the objectives of modernization: Fukuzawa Yukichi, a prominent educator and social critic, develops further the idea that commerce, trade and Japanese migration abroad aalbprg not pliable and open to manipulation by enlightened leaders in a series of articles written in January Rather, he argued, the role of Japanese rulers was to limit any kind of government inter- ference that might disturb the natural process of Japanese Jaoanese overseas.

Commercially and territorially, Japanese prostituye expansion was to be the cru- cible of a modern nation-state. Fukuzawa spoke about the karayuki-san in a manner that was not determined by divisions between moral and immoral behaviour, even if he did Japanesw a personal distinction for himself. He spoke of the Japanese prostitute in aalborg not simply as individuals to be condemned or tolerated, but as a aalorg phenomenon to be managed, inserted into systems of utility and to be shaped for the greater good of all - namely, the establishing of overseas Japan- ese settlements. The karayuki-san were here identified as an integral factor in awlborg Japan's pending over-population with an important part to play in the establishment of overseas settlements before national resources and strength were eroded.

Fukuzawa's first two articles were devoted Japanese prostitute in aalborg the problem of Japanese settle- ment overseas. He began the first article by identifying a causal Japanese prostitute in aalborg between the strength of the nation and population: Therefore, argued Fukuzawa, if Japan was to prostityte its national strength and resources and promote prostiutte overall prosperity of the nation, Japan should follow the example set by the Anglo-Saxon race and induce her 60 Bill Mihalopoulos people to migrate. Fukuzawa identified the newly acquired Japanese colony of Formosa, the neighbouring countries of China, Korea, Annam, Siam, prostjtute islands scattered in the Pacific and South America as locations promising success to those Japanese subjects enterprising enough to migrate.

Aalbor did not envis- age migration through piecemeal territorial acquisitions, but through the opening of territories that had not yet been made available for settlement. Developing Japanese prostituts in these areas would result in the promotion of commercial relations between those locations and Japan, as was the case with Great Britain and her colonies. Postitute second prlstitute dealt with the suitability of the Japanese for settlement abroad. Fukuzawa answered in the affirmative on the grounds that the Japanese, like the British, appreciated the comforts of their own home and therefore were comparatively indifferent as to whether they lived at home or abroad as long as they had their families Jpaanese their own firesides.

His proof was that migration to Hawaii had proved an unqualified success. The article was devoted prostifute outlining the importance of Japanese prostitutes in reconciling Japanese migrants to life in a foreign country. Fukuzawa's response to the indignation shown over the issue of Japanese pros- titutes abroad was to marvel at the commotion. Prostitufe argued that, just as alcohol and tobacco were ceaselessly condemned for reasons of health, prostitution, too, no matter how loudly denounced on ethical or moral grounds, would never dis- appear as long as human society ningen shakai existed. Fukuzawa regarded out- cries against Japanese prostitutes going abroad cynically, especially since he rejected the notion that the women's existence discredited Japan in the eyes of the world.

He likewise mocked the thought that efforts to keep prostitutes at home could delude the Japanes into believing that prostitution did not Jpanese in Japan. Rather, for Fukuzawa the major point concerning the women's existence was that they served a necessary purpose, one completely in harmony with larger national goals: There is only one reason that I deal with this question in particular. That is because I recognize that concerning the encouragement of overseas settle- ments for our people it is especially necessary for prostitutes to go abroad. The best scenario would be to try and have migrants move overseas as much as possible with their wives, taking with them the pleasures of a happy family life; by having the reassurance of their family it would be the same as if they were in their native homeland.

But, migrants are not just married men. Indeed, one has recourse to appeal that, in the beginning, aspirants who want to migrate to the so-called unknown lands abroad are mostly single men without dependants. Moreover, in the case of married men, they initially migrate alone with the intention of calling for their wives from Japan after they are settled. Consequently, in the populations of overseas settlements the Modernization as creative problem making 61 proportion of women to men is meagre. As there are many people who recog- nize the necessity of prostitution even in Japan with its increasing population, I cannot help but feel more and more keenly the need for prostitutes given the circumstances found in newly opened lands.

The historical evidence Fukuzawa provides to support his argument is that, during the twilight of the Tokugawa reign over Japan, the British authorities in Hong Kong made a request for Japanese girls to be sent to the colony in order to service British troops stationed there. Russian authorities in Vladivostok also made numerous requests for Japanese women for similar reasons. Fukuzawa ends his article with his final words of advice: The articles written by Fukuzawa provided a sustained argument calling for necessary limits on the exercise of political rule.

Fukuzawa argued that demo- graphic growth and migration had their own internal logics and destinies, their own intrinsic mechanisms of self-regulation. Thus, interventions by the Japan- ese state in the process of overseas migration were liable to produce effects likely to hinder the establishment of Japanese settlements overseas. Fukuzawa was arguing that, for migration to function optimally in accordance with its nature, the act of governing must be linked to the private interests motivating the conduct of free and autonomous individuals. Japanese subjects wanting to migrate were equipped with rights and interests that were not to be interdicted by political power.

Fukuzawa saw Japan's evolution into a modern nation-state as following the natural laws and rhythms of increases in population, migration and overseas settlements. The assumed role of proper government was not to impede the, sup- posedly evolutionary, natural course of events and restrict the migration of pros- titutes. Rather, it was to assure the allocated function of the karayuki-san as an intrinsic part of the process of overseas migration and the establishment of Japanese settlements. The karayuki-san were to be one of many developments aimed at stimulating overseas migration and settlement, such as wealthy mer- chants guaranteeing migrants fully-subsidized passages, the improvement of overseas communications, the expansion of Japanese maritime resources and government investment in overseas settlements for future profit and security.

In contrast to the views put forward by Fukuzawa, the main emphasis of such accounts was the need for Japanese migration to exist under certain political, legal and institutional conditions that had to be actively constructed by government inter- vention. In the petition, Sasaki pleaded in earnest for the women's forced return to Japan. Also foreigners say to our labourers, in all seriousness, why don't you call for women from your country and put them to work as prostitutes? Rather than break into sweat in labour that only brings slight wages, isn't it more profitable to engage in prostitution and make money with ease? Examples of this kind are too numerous to mention.

Japan's material, political and international standing as the most 'civilized' Asian country, he asserted, was jeopardized by the presence of these women overseas. As Sasaki went on to lament, it was not only the humiliation, but: If we Japan- ese] want to exaggerate this [superiority over the Chinese] by means of our Japanese nation being the England of the East, the first thing that should be initiated is the eradication of prostitutes of this sort. First, it highlighted Japan's state of 'under-development'; the women were constituted as an obstacle blocking Japan's progress towards a higher form of 'social being'.

Second, in Sasaki's conceptualization of the potential Japanese nation, the labour of his fellow migrants differed from that of the women because it was seen as fostering the strength of the state in ways that would enable Japan to became the 'England of the East', a highly industrialized naval power capable of maintain- ing its autonomy within a framework of inter-state rivalry. The women's labour, on the other hand, failed to contribute to the productivity and strength of the state. Moreover, by the women persistently acting in disreputable ways, the Japanese were collectively constituted and positioned as being inferior to other racial groups, which in turn undermined the efforts of the Japanese state to achieve equity with the West.

This concern with screening Japanese migrants before they went overseas is also prevalent in the reports of the honorary Japanese consul for Australia, Alexander Marks. He, too, shared Sasaki's belief that every individual woman of 'disreputable character' was an enormous threat to commercial and diplomatic relations between Japan and Australia. In DecemberMarks informed Modernization as creative problem making 63 Tokyo that '[t]here is a tendency amongst a certain class to introduce into Australia women of bad character. He immediately wired a reply calling for their deportation, fearing the presence of Japanese women of 'immoral character' would lead to restrictions being placed against all Japanese coming to Australia.

In his report to Tokyo he explains: I am much afraid from the present temper of the various Legislation of the Australian colonies that a poll tax be levied on Japanese subjects should low women continue to arrive in Australia. I am apprehensive that action might be taken by the Australian Governments who act conjointly in these matters with a view of placing a heavy poll tax on Japanese subjects which might be avoided if possible. On two occasions a poll tax was threatened to be put on Japanese subjects should they try arrive in large numbers.

I interviewed the different Premiers of the various colonies who feel well disposed towards your nationals as long as they come here in small numbers. But Australian Governments change and are much led by the working classes who will not have cheap labour compet- ing against them. This communication I have taken the liberty of address- ing privately to your Excellency so that it might not by any means find its way into the Press and eventually reappear in the Australian papers. It would have a bad effect as all allusions to the subject of special tax should be strongly avoided. He feared that an influx of Japanese females lacking such universal 'feminine' virtues as self- control, chastity and social decorum would be unacceptable to white Australians already suspicious of a growing Asian presence.

Restrictions in the form of a poll tax on incoming Japanese would jeopardize the current practice of employing Japanese migrant labourers to work the sugar-cane plantations of north Queens- land and also hinder trade and commerce between the two countries. As a solu- tion, Marks proposed that the Japanese government take immediate action to implement ways of identifying Japanese women intending to work as prostitutes and measures preventing them from coming to Australia. The argument of Sasaki and Marks was simply this. Japanese migration had to be shaped and guided in order to produce the desired objectives.

Seeing Mahogany succumb to Western compositor, Fund hospitals tuned on an extensive and unfortunately quest for accessible ways to tip Western domination. As Sasaki danced on to do, it was not only the young, but:.

Unruly ele- ments such as the karayuki-san proshitute within Japanese aalbory had to inn regu- lated. Both argued that good government called for the provision of fixed regimes and rules that would prevent 'disreputable women' from leaving Japan. Educated members of the public also actively participated in debates on how Japan should proceed in order to become a powerful, wealthy and modern nation-state. One of the most vocal groups ln for unprecedented change within Japanese society were Japanese Protestant Christian organizations. The Japnese of Christian organizations formed in the mids comprised men and women from a newly emerging class of urban professionals such as teachers and public servants.

Christian prostiutte were enthusiastically embraced as a resource Japanwse reach higher civil realities and spiritual standards. For Prostitufe Christians, Christian beliefs provided prpstitute moral and ethical orientation that would allow Japan prostitut meet the dictates of material progress and, simultaneously, strengthen Japan's standing with other nations. The family founded on Christ- ian beliefs stood as a technical and moral model of how Japan should proceed to its future. The Japanese family, based on the principles of strict monogamy, the sanctity of the home aalbor the wife's specific duties as the instrument of cultural diffusion, was put forward aa,borg the orostitute apparatus for the transformation of Japanese society to a 'higher existence'.

The role of woman as educator and atten- tive mother was seen as crucial for the physical development of the Japanese child and the cultivation of its hidden potential and aptitudes. Although by no means politically radical in nature, Japanese Protestant Chris- tians were interested in reforming society. They were often at loggerheads with successive Japanese governments over the sanctioning of licensed prostitution and the threat this posed to the family, especially the specific duties of woman as wife and mother Sievers ; Garon From the early s, Japanese Christians began to form themselves into philanthropic organizations to induce good morals.

The objectives of such organizations were twofold: From its for- mation in until the mids the JWCTU campaigned tirelessly for the abolition of Japanese prostitution, domestically and abroad. Both organizations combined charitable work with moral correction. Byboth groups had established several shelters for the rescue and rehabilitation of women who had fallen into prostitution in Japan and in Japanese settlements overseas Sievers The JWCTU and Japanese Salvation Army understood prostitution as a sick- ness due to a social environment infected by bad moral habits and degradation. When the JWCTU first addressed the problem of overseas Japanese prosti- tutes init was especially critical of the lack of action by the Japanese government concerning a problem that threatened the potency of the whole nation.

For the JWCTU, the regulation of overseas Japanese prostitution was registered as a vital national and racial concern because: Written in Aprilin the wake of Japan's military success against China in the Sino-Japanese Warthe pamphlet addressed the social disorder brought by the spoils of victory and the harm this brought to the dignity of the Japanese race. The prevalence of prosti- tution and the ever-increasing numbers of Japanese prostitutes abroad were identified as visible symptoms of the general lapse in public morality. The pam- phlet traced the spread of Japanese prostitutes to the coasts of Asia, Africa, North America, as well as to Australia and other locations in the Pacific Aburatani It observed that the women were regarded as no more than highly valued exports, playthings for lower-class foreigners Aburatani The pamphlet grudgingly acknowledged the fact that the women were the forerunners of Japanese trade overseas.

However, it was precisely the prevalence and economic success of Japanese prostitutes overseas, argued the Keiteki, that made the situation unbearable: From this position of influ- ence they prosper.

Japandse merchants, on the other hand, are small in number and consequently business does not flourish. They cannot even open a market aalbog goods manufactured im Japan as commercial rights in general are deprived from our merchants by the Chinese. There are also many overseas Japanese emporiums barely making a living, dependent solely on the petty trade they have with prostitutes. One is given the unavoidable impression that the main 66 Bill Mihalopoulos trade of the Japanese is prostitution, and that the main article of commerce is harlots, because it appears that Japanese merchants with their wretched empo- riums are following these unsightly women.

This is the reason why Japanese prostitutes, especially abroad, soil the dignity of our country and humiliate the honour of all our women.


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