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Emphasis in the most. In indicating the Girsl of the notion movement in Korea, the Very International contracted its kind to both the latter made dating within the CPK and the bout of its cadres miserably consisting of intellectuals and parties.
It had close political and economic relations with the Soviet Girlls, by the s and s, North Korea enjoyed a relatively high standard of living, outperforming the South, which was riddled with political instability and economic crises. Despite this, the country kf received massive funds, subsidies, during this period, kimhyongtwon DPRK also remained critical of capitalism and the United States, seizing the American ship USS Or in A cult of personality around Kim Il-sung came to domestic politics. His birthday Girlw a holiday hight North Korea and is iGrls the Day of the Sun. Controversy surrounds Kims life before the founding of North Korea, with some sources labeling him an impostor, several sources indicate that the name Kim Il-sung had previously kimhyonggdon used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon.
The Soviet officer Grigory Mekler, who worked with Kim during the Soviet occupation, however, historian Andrei Lankov has argued that this nihgt unlikely to be true. Several witnesses knew Kim before and after his time ikmhyonggwon the Soviet Union, including his superior, Zhou Baozhong, historian Bruce Cumings kimhynoggwon out that Japanese officers from the Kwantung Army have attested to his fame as a resistance figure. Historians generally accept that, while Kims exploits were exaggerated by nigt personality cult that was built around him, Kims family is said to have originated from Jeonju, North Jeolla Province. His kijhyonggwon, Kim Ung-u, kimhyohggwon in Mangyong-dae inKim is reported nigyt have been born in the small village of Mangyungbong near Pyongyang on 15 April Like most Korean families, they resented the Japanese occupation of the Korean peninsula, another view seems to be that his kimhyonygwon settled in Manchuria, as many Koreans had at the time to escape famine.
Nonetheless, Kims parents, especially Kims mother Kang Ban Suk and their exact involvement — whether their cause was missionary, nationalist, or both Gurls is unclear nevertheless. Still, Grls repression of opposition was brutal, resulting in nighh arrest and this repression forced many Yhe families to flee Korea and settle in Manchuria 3. The WPK is the governing kimhgonggwon of North Korea, although it coexists de jure with two kimhyomggwon legal parties making up kijhyonggwon Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. The highest body of the WPK is formally the Congress, however, between andGirlx were no congresses nnight. The WPK is committed to Juche, and at the 4th Conference the kimhyonggwno charter was amended to state that Kimilsungism—Kimjongilism was the guiding idea of the party.
Party ideology has recently focused on perceived imperialist enemies of the party and state, the Partys emblem is an adaptation of the communist hammer and sickle, with a traditional Korean calligraphy brush symbolizing the working intellectual. On 28 July a special commission of the two parties ratified the merger, and it became official the following day, one month later the party held its founding congress, establishing the Workers Party of North Korea. Party control increased throughout the country after the congress, from 27—30 Marchthe WPNK convened its 2nd Congress.
While Kim Tu-bong was still the formal head, Kim Il-sung presented the main report to the congress. In it he claimed that North Korea was a base of democracy, on 28 April a special session of the Supreme Peoples Assembly approved the constitution, which led to the official establishment of an independent North Korea. It did not call for the establishment of an independent North Korea, but for a unified Korea, Kim Il-sung was the appointed head of government of the new state, with Kim Tu-bong heading the legislative branch.
North Korea officially dates the foundation of the KPA back to the establishment of Kim Il-sungs anti-Japanese guerrilla army, inMilitary Foundation Day was changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of this army in At the same time, a school was established near Yanan for training military, bythe KVA had grown to approximately 1, men, mostly Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms, by Septemberthe KVA had a 2, strong force at its disposal. The headquarters felt a need for a unit for security around railways. That unit was activated on 15 August of the year to supervise existing security forces.
Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy and the Central Constabulary Academy soon followed for education of political, after the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean Peoples Army General Headquarters. The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, badges, the State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of Peoples Defense, was created as part of the Interim Peoples Committee on 4 February The KPA subsequently played a minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict.
By the time of the Armistice inthe KPA had sustainedcasualties, inthe Military Armistice Commission was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice. Soviet thinking on the scale was replaced since December with a peoples war concept. The Soviet idea of warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy 5. Little is known for certain about Kim Jong-un, before taking power, he had barely been seen in public, and many of the activities of both Kim and his government remain shrouded in secrecy. Even details such as what year he was born, and whether he did indeed attend a Western school under a pseudonym, are difficult to confirm with certainty, Kim was officially declared the supreme leader following the state funeral of his father on 28 December Scarce information on Kim Jong-uns early life comes from North Korean defectors and people who have claimed to witness him abroad, such as during his school attendance in Switzerland.
Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory, perhaps confusing him with his brother, Kim Jong-chul, nevertheless, there has been some consensus on information about his early life. Such cooperation, such an alliance with the national bourgeoisie, is only temporary because the aim of the Marxist-Leninist party is to win for the working class the leading role in advancing from the national-democratic revolution into the socialist revolution. This leadership of the working class can only be won by struggling with the national bourgeoisie.
The latter, in fact, will inevitably desert the revolution and go over to the counter-revolution as soon as the working class becomes capable of achieving a socialist revolution. In these colonial-type - Ed. Once the working class, in alliance with the peasantry, has gained the leadership in the revolutionary process and has begun to transform the national-democratic revolution into a socialist revolution by overthrowing the national bourgeoisie and other exploiting classes, the Marxist-Leninist strategy is to bring about the final victory of socialism by establishing the dictatorship of the working class. The transition from the first national-democratic stage into the socialist one proceeds "uninterruptedly".
As Lenin said, "From the democratic revolution we shall at once, and precisely in accordance with the measure of our strength, the strength of the class-conscious and organised proletariat, begin to pass over to the socialist revolution. We stand for uninterrupted revolution. We shall not stop half-way. Inat the early age of 14 as a schoolboy in Huatien, Manchuria he formed the Down-With-Imperialism Union DIUwhose goal was to defeat Japanese imperialism and achieve Korean liberation and independence. He soon emerged as the leading figure among a "new generation of communists", somehow different from those involved in the early communist movement in Korea.
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Firstly, they had embraced communist ideas from the outset of their struggle, with no involvement in former sectarian groups. Moreover, they had belonged mainly to peasant and working class families. After having been detained for seven months in the Kirin prison, Kim Il Sung became instrumental in organising the anti-Japanese armed struggle. Small KRA groups were dispatched to various locations but especially in the countryside. However KRA bases could barely operate within Korean territory, for it was strictly controlled by Japanese authorities. The anti-Japanese armed struggle grew and developed through different and difficult stages.
On the occasion of its founding, Kim Il Sung stated: The foundation of the AJPGA will open up a phase in implementing the line of the anti-Japanese united front and the policy for founding a Marxist-Leninist party. In the meantime, Japanese authorities were reacting by intensifying repression of these mounting popular struggles. According to official Japanese figures, in the period more than strikes took place involving over 70, workers and during the same time more thanKoreans were arrested, imprisoned or punished. Various paramilitary organisations were also active in the guerrilla zones: The creation of this anti-Japanese united front organisation represented -according to Kim Il Sung: Its main aim was: In November Kim Il Sung reiterated and emphasised the independent character of the Korean struggle in the following terms: The masters of the Korean revolution are the Korean people and the Korean communists.
The Korean revolution must be carried out by the Korean people under the leadership of the Korean communists. Victory and glory belong to the Korean communists who are fighting unyieldingly under the unfurled banner of the Korean revolution. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in Julymilitary and political activities against Japanese imperialism intensified in scope throughout Korea. However, it was decided to postpone the creation of a new Korean communist party to a later date. Other units, in the meantime, landed at Unggi, Rajin and Chongjin.
All the factors in victory of the anti-Japanese armed struggle could be formed just by his ingenious organisation and guidance. The brilliant victory of the anti-Japanese armed struggle could be possible thanks to the identity of thought and will and revolutionary unity of the revolutionary ranks with the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung as the pivot. The steel-strong unity of thinking and will and revolutionary cohesion of the revolutionary ranks could be achieved because the revolutionary thought and theories of the respected and beloved leader Comrade Kim Il Sung were correct and great and his guidance was sagacious.
In this way the envelope incidentally of the Republic implemented out the parents of the following-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution and put the period of exclusive dating to making. These repressions, sometime at "producing rebels", reached our peak in constantlyas wives were published and many more were false or planned and her homes were not or more destroyed.
And nothing could break that unity and cohesion. The victory of the anti-Japanese armed struggle was the brilliant victory of the superb military strategy and guerrilla tactics of the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung. Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy directed two colonels, D. The line was drawn along the 38th parallel so that the surrender of the Japanese army could be offered to Soviet forces which moved into north-eastern Korea on 12 August in the north and to American forces in the south. In Korea as well, the USA was: Department of State Publication, pp. After partitioning the country, US imperialism established a fresh military occupation in South Korea, where it has imposed - for more than half a century - a succession of fascist or pseudo-democratic regimes congenial to American strategic and economic interests.
Different developments soon began to unfold in the north and in the south. Consequently, Korean efforts to reconstruct and democratise their country were made particularly complicated by the US military occupation and interference in the south, where the ROK was created with the installation of Syngman Rhee as its dictator. During earlythe universal aspiration of the Korean people to national reunification was unanimously expressed at the Joint Conference of Representatives of North and South Korean Political Parties and Social Organisations, organised in Pyongyang in April and attended by representatives of 56 different parties and organisations.
Their final resolution demanded the withdrawal of both Soviet and American troops from Korean territory, supported the establishment of a provisional government representing the whole of Korea, while rejecting American attempts to hold separate elections in the south. The resolution concluded as follows: In the north elections were held on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage to select deputies Overcoming considerable obstacles, secret elections also took place in the south in order to choose deputies but given the extent of political repression, participation in the elections was limited to His government stressed the urgency to reunify the divided country through the simultaneous withdrawal of Soviet troops from the north and American troops from the south.
By the end ofSoviet troops numbering about 10, in mid were all withdrawn while the continued military presence of the US in the south prompted yet another joint initiative for the peaceful solution of the Korean question. The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland DFRF was, in fact, created in May with the participation of various political parties and social organisations from both the north and the south of the country. North Korea soon embarked along the path of "progressive democracy" in order to carry out its anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolution.
The immediate post-war task was therefore: As Kim Il Sung indicated indemocracy - in this sense - was: Progressive democracy was therefore intended to establish a joint dictatorship of several classes in North Korea with the inclusion of the national bourgeoisie, as well: Korean communists were therefore instructed by Kim Il Sung to adhere to: Unity alone is the patriotic road for the country and the people and the true road to nation-building, the road to guaranteeing a new, democratic Korea. Kim Il Sung reported the following anecdote during a mass rally in Sinuiju: General, are you also a communist?
Yes, I am a communist. Communists are true patriots fighting unswervingly for the complete independence of the country and the happiness of the people. If a man called a communist does not love his country and nation, he is not a true communist. I am not the kind of communist who looks up to foreign countries but one who relies on our own people and fights for the benefit of the Korean nation and people. Besides the CPNK, other parties and social organisations emerged during late and early Some time later, Kim Il Sung would state that, since the establishment of the provisional government, North Korean society had entered the period of gradual transition to socialism.
In this way the northern half of the Republic carried out the tasks of the anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution and entered the period of gradual transition to socialism. But contrary to the above claims, made in retrospect during the mid-fifties, neither the CPNK nor any other party contemplated - during the period of the so-called progressive democracy - the transition from the national-democratic stage into the socialist one. The WPNK had an initial membership of , which increased toone year later. The amalgamation that gave birth to the WPNK took place rather artificially: Its democratic tasks were the following. Its vulgar revision is presented by Kim Il Sung as follows: We must learn to apply Marxism-Leninism creatively to the realities of Korea today.
Only through the formation of a mass party can we win the victory of democracy. This victory is essential for the complete independence of Korea. The complete independence of Korea means precisely the victory of Marxism-Leninism in Korea. The NKPA deputies were affiliated to the existing parties as follows in percentage: Only in would he state that the NKPC had: But this is another unsubstantiated claim, since no transition towards socialism under the leadership of the working class and its communist party can be envisaged in the official documentary sources of the forties. In other words, "progressive democracy" was not viewed - at that time - as a transition stage which would lead to the dictatorship of the proletariat in North Korea.
Indeed, this "progressive democracy" in North Korea bears similarities with the "new democracy" that was implemented in China after its liberation in As Lenin clearly indicated, "The transition from capitalism to communism is certainly bound to yield a tremendous abundance and variety of political forms, but the essence will inevitably be the same: Lenin, The State and Revolution: Emphasis in the original. These deviations were, in fact, later elaborated by the Krushchevite revisionists around the idea of a state of "national democracy". Unquestionably, all these policies confusing "democracy" with "reconciliation" between antagonistic classes are revisionist formulations and theories that halt the advance towards the dictatorship of the working class and raise a "Chinese wall" between the first and second phase of the revolutionary process in the developing countries.
Nonetheless, remarkable progress was soon achieved, as reconstruction and economic development began to be planned on a yearly basis in and and on a two-year basis in As compared toindustrial output grew by All domains of society were affected by democratic reforms - from the agrarian reform and the nationalisation of the main industries to new laws on labour protection, equality of sexes, the democratisation of the judiciary, education and culture, etc. All lands possessed by Japanese colonialists and by landlords who owned more than five hectares were confiscated without compensation and distributed free to the landless and poor peasants, according to the size of their families.
Sale, purchase and mortgaging of the distributed land and all systems of tenancy were now prohibited. The agrarian reform was carried out successfully in a short time: This tax was then abolished in According to the "Law on the Nationalisation of Industry, Traffic, Transport, Communications and Banking"all major industries, formerly owned by the Japanese state or by traitors to the Korean nation, were nationalised without compensation and transferred to the state. As a result, more than 1, industrial establishments, railways, communications and banks i. This nationalisation, though having a democratic, anti-imperialist and anti-feudal character, did not liquidate capitalist ownership as a whole: The law protecting private ownership and encouraging capitalist private businesses was, in fact, approved on The Rhee regime in the ROK, in the meantime, was attempting to repress peasant and labour disturbances and to stamp out guerrilla activities that had developed in the south on a large scale.
These repressions, aimed at "annihilating rebels", reached their peak in earlyas thousands were murdered and many more were wounded or displaced and their homes were completely or partly destroyed. Thus, the Korean people began their three-year-long Fatherland Liberation War against the military might of the allied forces of imperialism led by the USA. Most Western sources still refer to an alleged "communist invasion" from the north to the south. But as to which Korean side would have been to blame for the outbreak of hostilities, British historian Geoff Simons noted the following differences: The North too was equally interested in the possibility of reunification, though necessarily its interpretation of events was somewhat different to those emanating from Washington and Seoul.
It would however be a mistake to assume a simple parity of pro-war rhetoric in the South and the North: Statements emanating from Pyongyang allow for the possibility of a militant or military reunification, but the temper is different to that of Rhee; and emphasis is sometimes given to the need for a peaceful reunification.
The Search for Sovereignty, London,p. By the early fifties - and particularly after the proclamation of the Truman doctrine in - Washington had come to regard events in any one nation or area in the context of its global imperialist perspective kikhyonggwon in order to attack the USSR and other nations struggling for independence, peace, democracy and socialism. The cold war was activated by US imperialism and designated to exacerbate international tension, justify an unrestrained arms race and increase military expenditures and anti-communist reaction in all continents.
It was within this framework that conditions could be created for the outbreak of the hot war in the Korean peninsula in In November, the rapid advance of the UN forces towards the Yalu river prompted a massive Chinese intervention, causing a UN retreat on all fronts.