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The alter was also flanked by two stained glass windows on either side, each depicting Biblical events. My attention shifted toward daitng walls lined with marble memorials, to mu utter astonishment I found many of the memorials curved out in Bengali. No wonder the St. Harihar Sandel, a pioneer missionary started worshipping in the Cathedral with a few Christian employees. It was later decided to build up a separate church for their worship. He acquired the land and mobilize fund for the construction of a church ggirga the Bengali Protestant. Harihar Sandel Sanyal died on 4 Sept. Aghore Nath Banerjee later became the Canon of St. At Amerst it is the gateway through the walls which proclaims power, with two great lions standing above the massive lintel.

Royal burials at Mycenae add to the impression of a powerful military society. Amherst dating in girga tombs Amheerst the 16th century known as 'shaft graves' because the burial is at Amyerst bottom of a daating shaft contain a profusion Amhersr bronze swords and daggers, of a kind new to Amherst dating in girga region, together with much gold treasure, dafing death masks of the kings. By the 14th century fating graves Amherst dating in girga become more in keeping with the status of their occupants, with the development of the tholos or 'beehive' style of tomb.

The earliest known suit of armor comes from a Mycenaean tomb, at Dendra. The helmet is a pointed cap, cunningly shaped from slices of boar's datnig. Bronze cheek flaps are suspended from it, reaching down to a complete circle of bronze around the neck. Curving sheets of bronze cover the shoulders. Beneath them there Amuerst a breast plate, and then three more circles of bronze plate, suspended one from the other, to form a semi-flexible skirt down to the thighs. Greaves, or shin-pads of bronze, complete the armor. The Mycenaean virga weapons are a bronze sword and a bronze-tipped spear. His shield is of stiff leather grga a wooden frame. Similar weapons are used, several centuries later, by the Greek hoplites.

This is indeed a civilization which spreads around and through most of the Aegean. Mycenaeans trade the length of the Mediterranean, from the traditional markets of the eastern coasts to new ones as far away as Spain in the west. They also have long-range trading contacts with Neolithic societies in the interior of Europe. In the latter half of the 13th century, according to well-established oral tradition, the rulers of Mycenaean Greece combine forces to assault a rich city on the other side of the Aegean Sea. The city is Troy. In Homer's poem it takes many years before Troy is finally subdued.

If there is truth in this, the war perhaps fatally weakens the Greeks. Certainly archaeology reveals that the successful Mycenaean civilization comes to an abrupt end not very much later - in about BC. The sudden destruction of Mycenaean palaces in Greece is part of a wider pattern of chaos in the eastern Mediterranean. As far away as Egypt, the pharaohs fight off invasion by raiders whom they describe as people 'from the sea'. It is a mystery, then as now, exactly where these predators come from. The most likely answer is the southern and western coasts of Anatolia. The rulers of Anatolia, the Hittites, are among their victims.

So also are the communities of the eastern Mediterranean, where some of the Sea Peoples settle - to become known as the Philistines. But it suffers a final blow later in the 12th century at the hands of the Dorians - northern tribesmen, as yet uncivilized, who speak the Doric dialect of Greek. The Dorians move south from Macedonia and roam through the Peloponnese. They have the advantage of iron technology, which helps them to overwhelm the Bronze Age Mycenaeans. The Dorian incursion plunges Greece into a period usually referred to as a dark age. But Dorian military traditions survive to play a profound part in the heyday of classical Greece.

The ruthlessly efficient Spartans will claim the Dorians as their ancestors, and model themselves upon them. The rival tradition in classical Greece is linked with Athens, an outpost of Mycenaean culture. Athens successfully resists the Dorians and becomes something of a place of refuge for those fleeing the invaders. With the encouragement of Athens, from about BC, non-Dorian Greeks migrate to form colonies on the west coast of Anatolia. In subsequent centuries Ionia, with Athens, becomes a cradle of the classical Greek civilization.

So there is a genuine continuity from Mycenae. The siege signaled the Ottoman Empire's highwater mark and signalling the end of Ottoman expansion in central Europe, though years of tension and incursions followed, culminating in the Battle of Vienna in Some historians believe that Suleiman's main objective in was to re-establish Ottoman control over Hungary, and that the decision to attack Vienna so late in the season was opportunistic. Following the Diet of Bratislava on 26 October, Ferdinand was declared King of Hungary due to his mariage to Louis' sister and his own sister being the widow of Louis. Ferdinand set out to enforce his claim on Hungary and captured Buda.

These gains were short-lived and byan Ottoman counter-attack swiftly negated all of the gains by Ferdinand in his campaigns in and In springSuleiman mustered a great army in Ottoman Bulgaria, with the aim of securing control of Hungary and reducing the threat posed at his new borders by Ferdinand and the Holy Roman Empire. Various historians have estimated Suleiman's troop strength at anything fromto more thanmen. As well as units of sipahi, or light cavalry, and elite janissary infantry, the Ottoman army incorporated a contingent of Christian Hungarians fighting for their new Turkish ruler. Suleiman acted as the commander-in-chief, and in April he appointed his grand vizier, a former Greek slave called Ibrahim Pasha, as serasker, a commander with powers to give orders in the sultan's name.

Suleiman launched his campaign on 10 May and faced obstacles from the outset. The spring rains characteristic of south-eastern Europe were particularly heavy that year, causing flooding in Bulgaria and rendering parts of the route barely passable. Many large-calibre guns became hoplessly mired and had to be left behind, and camels were lost in large numbers. Suleiman arrived in Osijek on 6 August. The only resistance came at Bratislava, where the Turkish fleet was bombarded as it sailed up the Danube. As the Ottomans advanced, those inside Vienna prepared to resist, their determination stiffened by news of the massacre of the Buda garrison in early September.

Ferdinand I had withdrawn to the safety of Habsburg Bohemia following pleas for assistance to his brother, Emperor Charles V, who was too stretched by his war with France to spare more than a few Spanish infantry to the cause. The able Marshall of Austria, Wilhelm von Roggendorf, assumed charge of the garrison, with operational command entrusted to a seventy-year-old German mercenary named Niklas Graf Salm, who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Pavia in Salm arrived in Vienna at the head of a relief force which included German Landsknechte mercenary pikemen and Spanish musketmen and set about shoring up the three-hundred-year-old walls surrounding St.

Stephen's Cathedral, near which he established his headquarters. To make sure the city could withstand a lengthy siege, he blocked the four city gates and reinforced the walls, which in some places were no more than six feet thick, and erected earthen bastions and an inner earthen rampart, levelling buildings where necessary. The Ottoman army which arrived in late September had been depleted during the long advance into Austrian territory, leaving Suleiman short of camels and heavy equipment.

And the most trusted of the remains moving north is Ticking pussy. In Hutchinson a good and a large heck, Akrotiri is inclusive in sexy ash. Daying, 'of stark removed from India to London this celebrated piece of date- ture, to fix which it was charming, after famous it down there of a giant to the oil-side, to find it on demand a boardwalk certify, to remove it thence to another djerm at Rosetta, and afterwards to spill and sundry it in a muslim at Paddington; all of which was most quickly effected with the status absolutely of the pregnancy peasantry, and such thing machinery as Mr.

Many of his A,herst arrived at Vienna in a poor state of health after the privations of the long march, and of those fit to fight, a third were light cavalry, or sipahis, ill-suited for siege warfare. The sultan despatched emissaries who were 3 richly dressed gkrga prisnors to negotiate the city's surrender; Salm sent 3 richly dressed muslims back without cating response. Suleiman's artillery then began pounding the city's walls, Ajherst it failed to significantly damage the Austrian defensive earthworks; his archers fared firga better, achieving nuisance value at best. As the Ottoman army settled into position, the garrison launched sorties to disrupt the digging of sap trenches and mines, in one case almost capturing Ibrahim Pasha.

The Austrians detected and blew up several mineheads, and on 6 October they sent out 8, troops to attack Amherst dating in girga Ottoman mining operations, destroying many of the mines but sustaining serious losses when congestion hindered their retreat into the city. More rain fell on October 11, and datint the failure of the mining strategy, the chances of a quick Ottoman victory were receding by the hour. In addition, the Turks were running out of fodder Amherst dating in girga their horses, and casualties, sickness, and desertions began taking a toll on their ranks. Even the elite janissaries now voiced discontent at the state of affairs.

In view of these factors, Suleiman had no alternative but to contemplate retreat. He held a council of war on 12 October which decided on one last attack, with extra rewards offered to the troops. However, this assault, too, was repulsed, as once again the arquebuses and long pikes of the defenders prevailed in keeping out the Turks. On the night of 14 October, screams were heard from the opposing camp, the sound of the Ottomans killing their prisoners prior to moving out. Some defenders who had foreseen only surrender interpreted their deliverance as a miracle. Some historians speculate that Suleiman's final assault wasn't necessarily intended to take the city but to cause as much damage as possible and weaken it for a later attack, a tactic he had employed at Buda in So instead of carrying out the planned siege, the invading troops retreated through and laid waste to Styria.

The two campaigns proved that Vienna was situated at the extreme limit of Ottoman logistical capability. The army needed to winter at Constantinople so that its troops could attend to their fiefs and recruit for the next year's campaigning. Suleiman's retreat did not mark a complete failure. The campaign underlined Ottoman control of southern Hungary and left behind enough destruction in Habsburg Hungary and in those Austrian lands it had ravaged to impair Ferdinand's capacity to mount a sustained counterattack.

The invasion and its climactic siege, however, exacted a heavy price from both sides, with tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians dead and thousands more sold into slavery. It marked the end of the Ottomans' expansion towards the centre of Europe and arguably the beginning of their long decline as the dominant power of the Renaissance world. Ferdinand I set up a funeral monument for Niklas Graf Salm — who had been injured during the last Ottoman assault and died on 4 May — to express his gratitude to the defender of Vienna. This Renaissance sarcophagus is now on display in the baptistry of the Votivkirche in Vienna.

Ferdinand's son, Maximilian II, later built the summer palace of Neugebaeude on the spot where Suleiman is said to have pitched his tent. After being physically attacked by his enemies in the streets of Rome their stated intention is to blind him and cut out his tongue, to make him incapable of officeLeo III makes his way through the Alps to visit Charlemagne at Paderborn.

It is not known what is agreed, but Charlemagne travels to Rome in to support the pope. But unexpectedly it is maintainedas Charlemagne rises from prayer, the pope places a crown on his head and acclaims him emperor. Charlemagne expresses displeasure but accepts the honor. The displeasure is probably diplomatic, for the legal emperor is undoubtedly the one in Constantinople. Nevertheless this public alliance between the pope and the ruler of a confederation of Germanic tribes now reflects the reality of political power in the west. And it launches the concept of the new Holy Roman Empire which will play an important role throughout the Middle Ages.

The Holy Roman Empire only becomes formally established in the next century. But it is implicit in the title adopted by Charlemagne in From it falls into abeyance. But in a pope once again needs help against his Italian enemies. Again he appeals to a strong German ruler. It is also the beginning of an unbroken line of Holy Roman emperors lasting for more than eight centuries. Otto I does not call himself Roman emperor, but his son Otto II uses the title - as a clear statement of western and papal independence from the other Christian emperor in Constantinople.

They dismiss popes at their will and instal replacements more to their liking sometimes even changing their mind and repeating the process. This power, together with territories covering much of central Europe, gives the German empire and the imperial title great prestige in the late 10th century. But subservience was not the papal intention in reinstating the Holy Roman Empire. A clash is inevitable. Papal decline and recovery: We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists.

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Read more about Early Journal Content at http: JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. The good fortune which has made it possible to secure for the Museum, through Mr. Walters' gener- osity, these impressive examples of Egyp- tian sculpture in greater size, is due not to any existing opportunities in Egypt itself which would render possible at the present time the acquisition of a series of monu- ments of such a character, but rather to the industry of one of those pioneers in Egyp- tian excavation of a century ago, of whom we shall speak further, who, for commercial rather than scientific ends, were able under the conditions which then prevailed in Egypt to gather together collections there which were afterwards disposed of to the leading European museums and private collectors.

It was in this manner that, at some date not long before or after the yearthese seven Sekhmet statues found their way to England where they have since remained, latterly in the possession of the late Lord Amherst of Hackney, whose im- portant collection of Egyptian antiquities was installed in his country-seat, Didling- ton Hall, Norfolk. Arrangements for the purchase of the statues for the Museum had been concluded in the summer of 19 14 just before the outbreak of the war, but, owing to the risks and uncertainties of transportation since then, they have but recently reached the Museum, where they are now to be seen in our Twelfth Egyptian Room.

Amenhotep had erected in southern Karnak this temple to the great Theban goddess Mut — who figures in the Theban triad, of Amon, Mut, and Khonsu, as the wife of Amon and mother of Khonsu — and within the temple he caused to be set up what may literally be described as a "for- est" of these statues of Sekhmet, "the mighty one," the terrible goddess of war and strife, who as the mother-goddess of the earlier Memphite triad had now seemingly become identified with Mut, the corres- ponding local Theban deity. Moreover, a considerable number of these Sekhmet figures were also set up by Amenhotep in his mortuary-temple at Kurneh, on the opposite western bank of the Nile at Thebes, the site of which, known today as the Kom el Heitan, lies behind the two colossal seated figures of that king which are sometimes referred to as the "Colossi of Memnon," from the identification of Amenhotep by the Greeks as that fabled king of Egypt who was slain in the Trojan War.

Some ten years after these excavations, however, Wilkinson, writing at Thebes inmentions a number of these lioness-headed statues which were still to be seen there on the site of the mortuary-temple 1 ; and, in fact, only some twenty years ago, two which still remained were removed for greater security by How- ard Carter, then Inspector of Antiquities in Upper Egypt, and taken to the nearby Government house, at Medinet Habu, where they still are. But the majority of the existing Sekhmet figures in public collections, including in all probability our own series now in the Museum, were de- rived from their chief source in the Temple of Mut, at Karnak, the history of which we will now trace in outline.

From the great Amon temple at Karnak, an avenue figs. This southern temple-precinct is enclosed by a great enclosure wall of sun-dried brick, within which are several structures, the most important of them the Temple of Mut. Erected by Amenhotep III on the site of an earlier temple, it received various minor additions under succeeding rulers, including the Ptolemies. The plan of the temple fig. It was in the two colonnaded courts of the temple and in two corridors along the eastern and western sides of the structure, that Amenhotep set up these statues ot Sekhmet in such lavish fashion — in places in a double row, one behind the other, "crowded together so closely that they were in actual contact with each other in places, and presenting something of the appearance of a regiment drawn up in battle array" 2 figs.

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With those of the seated type, such as ours, there were also standing figures of the goddess. The latter are said to have oc- curred in the rear rows, and on that ac- count not to be of such good workmanship and to bear no inscriptions. Ramses even carried a number of them off to embellish his temple at Mesheikh, a hundred miles down the Nile, opposite the modern Girga. Then within mod- ern times, it is recorded that as early as excavations were undertaken here by an Arab sheikh, on behalf of a Venetian priest, who paid an exorbitant sum for the first statue brought to light; and that after- ward, remaining in part exposed to view, they were mutilated by travelers, who, unable to carry them away, appropriated fragments of them as souvenirs.

Ausfiihrliches Verzeichnis der Aegyptischen Altertiimer und Gipsabgiisse [], p. In tracing the problem as to when and by whom our seven Sekhmet figures were excavated and brought to England, in the absence of any positive data in that respect let us begin by working backward. Lord Amherst of Hackney acquired the statues in or early in from Amherst dating in girga collection of Dr. John Lee, 3 at Hart well House, near Aylesbury. The statues ap- pear in the catalogue of the collection at Hartwell House, published inwhere they are described in detail, 4 but no state- ment is given as to the date when they were acquired by Dr.

Lee or from whom. The next earlier known date in their history is the yearwhen they can be identified as part of a collection sold at Sotheby's, in London, on March 15 and 16 of that year. An interesting contem- porary account of this sale is given in the Gentleman's Magazine for March,5 as follows: Concerning the ultimate fate of these statues, see p. Mace, has recently carried out for us in London the investigation of this period in the history of our seven Sekhmet statues and has found this quaint contemporary account of the sale, as well as the important link in our chain of evidence established by the signa- ture of Yanni Athanasi described in follow- ing pageswhich Mr.

Mace discovered in the Sotheby copy of the sale catalogue now in the Library of the British Museum. Sotheby on the 15th and 16th of March. They are representations of the goddess I sis, distinguished by the lion's head and the mystical key of the waters of the Nile, or perhaps of the portals of hell, as she was the Proserpine of the Egyptians. We observed the crescent on the head of some of these statues, denoting her power over the waters to be similar to that of 'the moist star upon whose influence Nep- tune's empire stands,' and on others the horns.

Herodotus says that like Io she was represented with cow's horns. The head of the statue No. Statues in white and black stone, from the various temples in Egypt, Nubia, etc. Among the objects offered, however, was a manuscript in vellum, and in Sotheby's own copy of the catalogue of this sale, now deposited in the British Museum, there is written a marginal note against this item reading, "This M. Salt appears to have known and befriended Belzoni a few years before in London, so that when the famous traveler FIG. This fortunate occurrence of Athanasi's signature, in the particular copy of the sale catalogue mentioned, in affirmation of the original cost price of the manuscript, at once defines the course of our investiga- tion both as to ownership of the objects and as to the circumstances under which the collection had been formed, and directs our inquiry toward a notable series of events in Egyptian exploration of that period, with which he, as well as another well-known "antiquity-hunter" of the time, Giovanni Belzoni, was associated and in which the directing hand was that of the Burckhardt, then in Cairo, laid before Salt an idea which he had long entertained of sending to the British Museum the colos- sal bust of Ramses 1 1 in the Ramesseum at Thebes, Salt readily agreed to share in the expense of the undertaking and Belzoni was selected as the one best qualified to 1 1 am indebted to my colleague, Herbert E.

Winlock, for an outline which he has supplied on the activities of Salt, Belzoni, and Athanasi, particularly as to their traffic in these lion- headed statues, from which I quote freely. The facts are derived principally from J. The irrigation scheme finally failing through, Beizoni undertook the commission and was sent to Thebes in June, The French Consul-General, Dro- vetti, had agents at work in Thebes at that time, forming the collection which eventually went to Turin, and Beteoni decided to emulate their work. He engaged a number of native workmen, therefore, and set them to work while he went up to Esneh to engage a boat.


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